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专升本中的关系副词和关系代词有什么区别?

来源:湖北成人高考网 发布时间:2018-10-08 14:53:13

  在成人高考专升本外语科目的考试中,时常会涉及到关系代词和关系副词,不少考生都会在这个考点上犯迷糊,所以今天,成教自考专升网就针对这个考点进行系统的讲解,希望可以解答考生的疑惑。


  一、选准关系代词和关系副词


  在定于从句中,关系代词或关系副词都替代先行词在从句中充任一定的成分,假如该从句中短少主语、表语、宾语或定语,就要用关系代词来衔接从句;假如从句中短少状语,就得用关系副词来衔接从句。


  1.I still remember the days which/that we spent together.


  2.I still remember the days when we worked together.


  二、了解仅用that引导限制性定语从句的情况


  that在限制性定语从句既可指人又可指物.在下列情况下,只能用that来引导定语从句。


  1.先行词是all,much,few,little,everything,anything,nothing等不定代词是,如:Is there anything that you want to buy


  2.先行词被all,few,little,much,every,some,no等词润饰或被the only,the very,the same,the last等限定词润饰时。如:These are all the pictures that I have seen.This is the very dictionary that is of指人great help.


  3.先行词既指人又指物时。如:My father and his teacher talked a lot about the things and the persons that they could remember


  4.关系代词在定语从句中作表语时。如:Our school is not the one that it used to be.


  5.先行词被形容词的最高级或序数词润饰时。如:The first English novel that I read was A Tale of Two Cities.


  6.主句是who或which引导的特殊问句时。如:Who is the girl that is standing under the true Which is the machine that we used last Sunday


  三、把握“介词+关系代词”结构中介词的选用


  介词的选择与住句中先行词的搭配密切相关。如:That‘s the reason for which he was late for school.This is the book on which I spent 8 yuan.


  留意:定语从句中谓语动词是含有介词的动词短语时,介词应放在动词之后,不能拆开放在关系代词前。如:This is the key which you are looking for.This is the baby whom you will look after.


  四、弄清as和which引导的非限制性定语从句的差异


  1.方位上的差异:as引导的非限制性定语从句的方位比较灵活,能够放在主句前,也能够放在主句后,还可插在放在主句之后。“周所周知,地球环绕太阳转”。这句话能够有以下几种表达方式(1)As is known to us all,the earth turns around the sun.(2)The earth,as is known to us all,turns around the sun.(3)The earth turns around the sun,as is known to us all.(4)The earth turns around the sun,which our parents once told us when we were very young.


  2.词义与关系上的差异:as引导的非限制性定语从句与主句之间有着较为密切的上下文关系,as自身含有“正如”之意;而which引导的非限制性定语从句与主句之间在逻辑意义上近似并列句,which自身表明“这”或“这一点”之意。如:Light travels faster than sound,as we all know.Jack came late for school,which made his teacher angry.


  五、留意定语从句的主谓一致性


  关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语有必要与先行词坚持人称和数的一致。如:Tom is one of the boys who is from the USA


  六、坚持主句的完整性


  1.在定于从句中,不管呈现任何情况,主句的结构有必要完整,即主句有必要有主语和谓语,缺一不可,否则,整个主从复合句就无法成立。试比较:


  (1)Is this factory_____ we visited last week


  (2)Is this the factory _______ we visited last week


  A.which B.where C.what D.the one


  解析:第一道短少表语,只要填D项才能坚持主句的完整性,而其他的选项均为搅扰项。第二题逐句自身完整,应填的关系代词在从句中作visited的宾语,故应选A项。


  2.在定语从句中,关系代词或关系副词现已替代先行词独立地或与相应的介词一同在定语从句中充任了一定的成分,因此在定语从句中就不能再呈现于关系代(副)词堆叠的成分。如:Is this the train that they took it last Sunday(错句)分析:该题中that现已替代先行词the train在定语从句中充任及物动词took的宾语,故堆叠呈现的宾语it有必要删去。


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